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One to beam up
1 \chapter*{Introduction}
2 \addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{Introduction}
3
4 \section*{Purpose}
5 This document is a deliverable for the completion of the final internship for the \textit{Technische Informatica} (TI) study course at the \textit{Hogeschool van Amsterdam} (HvA).
6 The internship lasted from May 2009 to October 2009 at Nikhef, the Dutch National Institute for Subatomic Physics.
7 During this internship I have helped design and implement the \textit{Execution Environment Service} (EES), a Grid security middleware service component.
8
9 \section*{Grid computing}
10 Grid computing is a term that describes computing platforms that aim to provide ubiquitous computing resources.
11 Analogous to the power Grid, software should just be 'plugged in' and run.
12 The goal of Grid computing is to utilize existing computing infrastructures equally well as infrastructures that are to be realised in the future.
13
14 CERN, one of the largest users of Grid technology, defines Grid computing simply as: "\textit{A service for sharing computer power and data storage capacity over the Internet}".
15
16 %\section{Grid computing VS Cloud computing}
17 %It is easy to mistake Grid computing for Cloud computing: the key distinction to make is that while cloud computing completely abstracts the underlying infrastructure from the user's point of view (for example by using virtualization), Grid computing tries to optimize available resources by maintaining control over the lower layers of the architecture.
18 %This enables users to, for example, devise their own strategies for replicating data within their project's quota limits.
19 %This is abstracted from the user in cloud computing environments.
20 %Also, Grids are inherently multi-domain (meaning they are provided by multiple cooperating organisations) and open (meaning they make use of open standards).
21 %Incidentally, they also frequently employ Open Source software.
22
23 % Bij grid heb je binnen de quota limitieten de replicatie tactieken zelf in de hand.
24 % Bij cloud wordt het gekozen voor je.
25 % Multi-domain
26 % Open standaarden
27 % Open source
28
29 % Computing resources
30 % Meer cluster architectuur
31 % Bepaalde typen resources
32 % Hoe groot het grid is (zie mail oscar)
33
34
35 \section*{Purpose of the EES}
36 The EES is a service that can procure execution environments on Grid sites.
37 These execution environments can be as simple as an existing Unix user account to which the supplied user credentials are 'mapped' or as complex as deploying full virtual machines for a user.
38
39 %Specifically I worked on the design and implementation of the \textit{EES Execution Framework} (EEF).
40 \section*{Document organisation}
41 This document is organised as follows:
42 \begin{itemize}
43 \item Section 1 gives a short history of Nikhef and the projects its involved with.
44 \item Section 2 tries to give a brief but practical introduction to the Grid computing security framework.
45 \item Section 3 details the design of the EES.
46 \item Section 4 describes the implementation of the EEF components (the bulk of the code).
47 \item Section 5 provides a short overview of the EEF interaction API.
48 \item Section 6 suggests future improvements.
49 \end{itemize}
50
51 \section*{Prior work}
52 The \textit{gLite user guide} \cite{glite_user_guide} provides an introduction to the gLite middleware stack, which can serve as a more complete reference to the middleware services described in section 2.
53 Appendix \ref{use_cases} describes the use cases the gLite stack is currently used for, which provides the shortest possible introduction to the different middleware services and their roles.
54
55

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